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  C Programming Tutorials
Basics of C:
Facts about C
Why to Use C
C Program File
C Compilers

Program Structure:
Simple C Program
C Program Compilation

Basic DataTypes:
DataTypes
Modifiers
Qualifiers
Arrays

Variable Types:
Local Variable
Global Variable

Storage Classes:
auto storage class
register storage class
static storage class
extern storage class

Using Constants:
Defining Constants
The enum Data Types

Operator Types:
Arithmetic Operators
Logical Operators
Bitwise Operators
Assignment Operators
Misc Operators

Control Statements:
Branching
Looping

Input and Output:
printf() function
scanf() function

Pointing to Data:
Pointers and Arrays
Pointer Arithmetic
Pointer Arithmetic with arrays

Functions:
Using functions
Declaration and Definition

Strings:
Reading and Writing Strings
String Manipulation Function

Structured DataTypes:
Structure
Pointer to Structure

Working with Files:
Files
Basic I/O

Bits:
Bits Manipulation
Bits Field

Pre-Processors:
Pre-Processors Examples
Parameterized Macros
Macro Caveats

Useful Concepts

Built-in Library Functions:
String Manipulation Function
Memory Management Function
Buffer Manipulation
Character Functions
Error Handling Functions

Soft Skills
Communication Skills
Leadership Skills
                              .........More

 

 

  

C Programming Tutorials


Bitwise Operators:
Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit by bit operation.

Assume if B = 60; and B = 13; Now in binary format they will be as follows:

A = 0011 1100

B = 0000 1101

-----------------

A&B = 0000 1000

A|B = 0011 1101

A^B = 0011 0001

~A = 1100 0011
Show Examples

There are following Bitwise operators supported by C language

Operator Description Example
& Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. (A & B) will give 12 which is 0000 1100
| Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. (A | B) will give 61 which is 0011 1101
^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^ B) will give 49 which is 0011 0001
~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. (~A ) will give -60 which is 1100 0011
<< Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A << 2 will give 240 which is 1111 0000
>> Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A >> 2 will give 15 which is 0000 1111

Assignment Operators:
There are following assignment operators supported by C language:
Show Examples

Operator Description Example
= Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand C = A + B will assign value of A + B into C
+= Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand C += A is equivalent to C = C + A
-= Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand C -= A is equivalent to C = C - A
*= Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A
/= Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A
%= Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A
<<= Left shift AND assignment operator C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2
>>= Right shift AND assignment operator C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2
&= Bitwise AND assignment operator C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2
^= bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2
|= bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator C |= 2 is same as C = C | 2

Short Notes on L-VALUE and R-VALUE:
x = 1; takes the value on the right (e.g. 1) and puts it in the memory referenced by x. Here x and 1 are known as L-VALUES and R-VALUES respectively L-values can be on either side of the assignment operator where as R-values only appear on the right.

So x is an L-value because it can appear on the left as we've just seen, or on the right like this: y = x; However, constants like 1 are R-values because 1 could appear on the right, but 1 = x; is invalid.

Misc Operators
There are few other operators supported by C Language.
Show Examples

Operator Description Example
sizeof() Returns the size of an variable. sizeof(a), where a is integer, will return 4.
& Returns the address of an variable. &a; will give actual address of the variable.
* Pointer to a variable. *a; will pointer to a variable
? : Conditional Expression If Condition is true ? Then value X : Otherwise value Y

Operators Categories:
All the operators we have discussed above can be categorized into following categories:

  • Postfix operators, which follow a single operand.

  • Unary prefix operators, which precede a single operand.

  • Binary operators, which take two operands and perform a variety of arithmetic and logical operations.

  • The conditional operator (a ternary operator), which takes three operands and evaluates either the second or third expression, depending on the evaluation of the first expression.

  • Assignment operators, which assign a value to a variable.

  • The comma operator, which guarantees left-to-right evaluation of comma-separated expressions.

Precedence of C Operators:
Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in an expression. This affects how an expression is evaluated. Certain operators have higher precedence than others; for example, the multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition operator:

For example x = 7 + 3 * 2; Here x is assigned 13, not 20 because operator * has higher precedence than + so it first get multiplied with 3*2 and then adds into 7.

Here operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table, those with the lowest appear at the bottom. Within an expression, higher precedence operators will be evaluated first.

Category Operator Associativity
Postfix () [] -> . ++ - - Left to right
Unary + - ! ~ ++ - - (type) * & sizeof Right to left
Multiplicative * / % Left to right
Additive + - Left to right
Shift << >> Left to right
Relational < <= > >= Left to right
Equality == != Left to right
Bitwise AND & Left to right
Bitwise XOR ^ Left to right
Bitwise OR | Left to right
Logical AND && Left to right
Logical OR || Left to right
Conditional ?: Right to left
Assignment = += -= *= /= %= >>= <<= &= ^= |= Right to left
Comma , Left to right

NEXT >> Control Statements

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