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  C Programming Tutorials
Basics of C:
Facts about C
Why to Use C
C Program File
C Compilers

Program Structure:
Simple C Program
C Program Compilation

Basic DataTypes:
DataTypes
Modifiers
Qualifiers
Arrays

Variable Types:
Local Variable
Global Variable

Storage Classes:
auto storage class
register storage class
static storage class
extern storage class

Using Constants:
Defining Constants
The enum Data Types

Operator Types:
Arithmetic Operators
Logical Operators
Bitwise Operators
Assignment Operators
Misc Operators

Control Statements:
Branching
Looping

Input and Output:
printf() function
scanf() function

Pointing to Data:
Pointers and Arrays
Pointer Arithmetic
Pointer Arithmetic with arrays

Functions:
Using functions
Declaration and Definition

Strings:
Reading and Writing Strings
String Manipulation Function

Structured DataTypes:
Structure
Pointer to Structure

Working with Files:
Files
Basic I/O

Bits:
Bits Manipulation
Bits Field

Pre-Processors:
Pre-Processors Examples
Parameterized Macros
Macro Caveats

Useful Concepts

Built-in Library Functions:
String Manipulation Function
Memory Management Function
Buffer Manipulation
Character Functions
Error Handling Functions

Soft Skills
Communication Skills
Leadership Skills
                              .........More

 

 

  

C Programming Tutorials


Qualifiers
A type qualifier is used to refine the declaration of a variable, a function, and parameters, by specifying whether:

  • The value of a variable can be changed.

  • The value of a variable must always be read from memory rather than from a register

Standard C language recognizes the following two qualifiers:

  • const

  • volatile

The const qualifier is used to tell C that the variable value can not change after initialization.
const float pi=3.14159;

Now pi cannot be changed at a later time within the program.

Another way to define constants is with the #define preprocessor which has the advantage that it does not use any storage

The volatile qualifier declares a data type that can have its value changed in ways outside the control or detection of the compiler (such as a variable updated by the system clock or by another program). This prevents the compiler from optimizing code referring to the object by storing the object's value in a register and re-reading it from there, rather than from memory, where it may have changed. You will use this qualifier once you will become expert in "C". So for now just proceed.

What are Arrays:
We have seen all basic data types. In C language it is possible to make arrays whose elements are basic types. Thus we can make an array of 10 integers with the declaration.

int x[10];

The square brackets mean subscripting; parentheses are used only for function references. Array indexes begin at zero, so the elements of x are:

Thus Array are special type of variables which can be used to store multiple values of same data type. Those values are stored and accessed using subscript or index.

Arrays occupy consecutive memory slots in the computer's memory.

x[0], x[1], x[2], ..., x[9]

If an array has n elements, the largest subscript is n-1.

Multiple-dimension arrays are provided. The declaration and use look like:

int name[10] [20];
n = name[i+j] [1] + name[k] [2];

Subscripts can be arbitrary integer expressions. Multi-dimension arrays are stored by row so the rightmost subscript varies fastest. In above example name has 10 rows and 20 columns.

Same way, arrays can be defined for any data type. Text is usually kept as an array of characters. By convention in C, the last character in a character array should be a `\0' because most programs that manipulate character arrays expect it. For example, printf uses the `\0' to detect the end of a character array when printing it out with a `%s'.

Here is a program which reads a line, stores it in a buffer, and prints its length (excluding the newline at the end).

 main( )
{
int n, c;
char line[100];
n = 0;
while( (c=getchar( )) != '\n' )
{
if( n < 100 )
line[n] = c;
n++;
}
printf("length = %d\n", n);
}

Array Initialization

  • As with other declarations, array declarations can include an optional initialization

  • Scalar variables are initialized with a single value

  • Arrays are initialized with a list of values

  • The list is enclosed in curly braces

int array [8] = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16};

The number of initializes cannot be more than the number of elements in the array but it can be less in which case, the remaining elements are initialized to 0.if you like, the array size can be inferred from the number of initializes by leaving the square brackets empty so these are identical declarations:

int array1 [8] = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16};
int array2 [] = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16};

An array of characters ie string can be initialized as follows:

char string[10] = "Hello";

NEXT >> Variables Type

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