techpreparation-homepage

Home  Interview Questions  Certifications  Aptitude Questions  Tutorials  Placement Papers  Search  Resume  Soft Skills  Video  Forum  Blog


Technical Interview Questions

JavaScript Interview Question
XHtml Interview Questions
Ajax Interview Questions
XML Interview Questions
VB Interview Questions
                              .........More

Source Codes
Flash Source Codes
Html Source Codes
CSS Source Codes
                              .........More

Soft Skills
Communication Skills
Leadership Skills
                              .........More

 

  

CSS Source Codes

CSS shorthand properties

One of the main advantages of using CSS is the large reduction in web page download time. To style text, you used to have to use the <font> tag over and over again. You probably also laid out your site with tables, nested tables and spacer gifs. Now all that presentational information can be placed in one CSS document, with each command listed just once.

But why stop there? By using CSS shorthand properties you can reduce the size of your CSS document even more.

Font
Use:

font: 1em/1.5em bold italic serif

...instead of

font-size: 1em;
line-height: 1.5em;
font-weight: bold;
font-style: italic;
font-family: serif

This CSS shorthand property will only work if you're specifying both the font-size and the font-family - omit either and the CSS rule will be completely ignored. Also, if you don't specify the font-weight, font-style, or font-varient then these values will automatically default to a value of normal, so do bear this in mind too.

Background
Use:

background: #fff url(image.gif) no-repeat top left

...instead of

background-color: #fff;
background-image: url(image.gif);
background-repeat: no-repeat;
background-position: top left;

Omit any of these commands from the background CSS shorthand property, and the browser will use the default values. If you leave out the background-position command then any background image will be place in the top-left of the container and then repeated both horizontally and vertically.

Lists
Use:

list-style: disc outside url(image.gif)

...instead of

list-style: #fff;
list-style-type: disc;
list-style-position: outside;
list-style-image: url(image.gif)

Leave out any of these CSS commands from the shorthand rule, and the browser will use the default values for each, namely disc, outside and none (i.e. no images) respectively.

Margin & padding
There are a number of different CSS shorthand commands for margin and padding, depending on how many of the sides of the containing element have the same margin or padding values:

Four different values
Use:

margin: 2px 1px 3px 4px (top, right, bottom, left)

...instead of

margin-top: 2px;
margin-right: 1px;
margin-bottom: 3px;
margin-left: 4px

Three different values
Use:

margin: 5em 1em 3em (top, right and left, bottom)

...instead of

margin-top: 5em;
margin-right: 1em;
margin-bottom: 3em;
margin-left: 1em

Two different values
Use:

margin: 5% 1% (top and bottom, right and left)

...instead of

margin-top: 5%;
margin-right: 1%;
margin-bottom: 5%;
margin-left: 1%

One different value
Use:

margin: 0 (top, bottom, right and left)

...instead of

margin-top: 0;
margin-right: 0;
margin-bottom: 0;
margin-left: 0

The above rules also apply to padding and border (see below for more on border).

Border
Use:

border: 1px black solid

...instead of

border-width: 1px;
border-color: black;
border-style: solid

Use:

border-right: 1px black solid

...instead of

border-right-width: 1px;
border-right-color: black;
border-right-style: solid

(You can substitute right with top, bottom or left.)

The above CSS shorthand rules can be conveniently combined with the shorthand rules used by margin and padding. Take a look at the following box:

1

These borders can be achieved with the following CSS command:

border: 8px solid #336;
border-left: 10px solid #ccf;
border-top: 10px solid #ccf

You can achieve exactly the same effect by using:

border: 8px solid #336;
border-width: 10px 8px 8px 10px
border-color: #ccf #336 #336 #ccf

Conclusion
CSS shorthand properties are great! They're a great way to reduce the amount of code contained in a CSS document, allowing for faster download times and easier editing. Now who can argue with that?


<<<----- Return to CSS Source Code Questions Page.

Have a Question ? post your questions here. It will be answered as soon as possible.

Check Html Interview Questions for more Html Interview Questions with answers