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C/C++ Aptitude Questions and Answers

Differentiate persistent & non-persistent objects?
Persistent refers to an object's ability to transcend time or space. A persistent object stores/saves its state in a permanent storage system with out losing the information represented by the object.
A non-persistent object is said to be transient or ephemeral. By default objects are considered as non-persistent.

What do you meant by active and passive objects?
Active objects are one which instigate an interaction which owns a thread and they are responsible for handling control to other objects. In simple words it can be referred as client.
Passive objects are one, which passively waits for the message to be processed. It waits for another object that requires its services. In simple words it can be referred as server.

What is meant by software development method?
Software development method describes how to model and build software systems in a reliable and reproducible way. To put it simple, methods that are used to represent ones' thinking using graphical notations.

What are models and meta models?
It is a complete description of something (i.e. system).
Meta model:
It describes the model elements, syntax and semantics of the notation that allows their manipulation.

What do you meant by static and dynamic modeling?
Static modeling is used to specify structure of the objects that exist in the problem domain. These are expressed using class, object and USECASE diagrams.
            But Dynamic modeling refers representing the object interactions during runtime. It is represented by sequence, activity, collaboration and statechart diagrams.

Why generalization is very strong?
Even though Generalization satisfies Structural, Interface, Behaviour properties. It is mathematically very strong, as it is Antisymmetric and Transitive.
            Antisymmetric: employee is a person, but not all persons are employees. Mathematically all As are B, but all Bs not A.
             Transitive: A=>B, B=>c then A=>c.
              A. Salesman.
                          B. Employee.           
                          C. Person.
             Note: All the other relationships satisfy all the properties like Structural properties, Interface properties,  Behavior properties.

Differentiate Aggregation and containment?
Aggregation is the relationship between the whole and a part. We can add/subtract some   properties in the part (slave) side. It won't affect the whole part.
            Best example is Car, which contains the wheels and some extra parts. Even though the parts are not there we can call it as car.
            But, in the case of containment the whole part is affected when the part within that got affected. The human body is an apt example for this relationship. When the whole body dies the parts (heart etc) are died.

Can link and Association applied interchangeably?
No, You cannot apply the link and Association interchangeably. Since link is used represent the relationship between the two objects.
            But Association is used represent the relationship between the two classes.
            link ::                student:Abhilash         course:MCA
            Association::    student                  course

what is meant by "method-wars"?
Before 1994 there were different methodologies like Rumbaugh, Booch, Jacobson, Meyer etc who followed their own notations to model the systems. The developers were in a dilemma to choose the method which best accomplishes their needs.     This particular span was called as "method-wars"

Whether unified method and unified modeling language are same or different?
Unified method is convergence of the Rumbaugh and Booch.
      Unified modeling lang. is the fusion of Rumbaugh, Booch and Jacobson as well as Betrand Meyer (whose contribution is "sequence diagram"). Its' the superset of all the methodologies.

Who were the three famous amigos and what was their contribution  to the object community?
The Three amigos namely,
  James Rumbaugh (OMT): A veteran in analysis who came up with an idea about the   objects and their Relationships (in particular Associations).
  Grady Booch: A veteran in design who came up with an idea about partitioning of systems into subsystems.
  Ivar Jacobson (Objectory): The father of USECASES, who described about the user and system interaction.

Why does the function arguments are called as "signatures"?
            The arguments distinguish functions with the same name (functional polymorphism). The name alone does not necessarily identify a unique function.  However, the name and its arguments (signatures) will uniquely identify a function.
            In real life we see suppose, in class there are two guys with same name, but they can be easily identified by their signatures. The same concept is applied here.
                        class person
                                    char getsex();
                                    void setsex(char);
                                    void setsex(int);
            In the above example we see that there is a function setsex() with same name but with different signature.

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